According to the Hindu Calendar, there are six seasons or ritus in a year. Since Vedic times, Hindus across India and millions of Hinduism followers in South Asia have used Hindu Calendar to structure their lives around the seasons of the year.
The faithful still use it today for important Hindu festivals and religious occasions. Each season is two months long, and special celebrations and events occur during all of them. According to Hindu scriptures, the six seasons are:
- Vasant Ritu: Spring
- Grishma Ritu: Summer
- Varsha Ritu: Monsoon
- Sharad Ritu: Autumn
- Hemant Ritu: Pre-winter
- Shishir or Shita Ritu: Winter
While the climate of northern India mostly conforms to these marked changes of season, the changes are less evident in Southern India, which lies close to the equator.
Vasanta Ritu: Spring
Springtime in Hindu Calendar, is called Vasant Ritu, is considered the king of seasons for its mild, pleasant weather across much of India. In 2019, Vasant Ritu began on February 18 and ended on April 20.
The Hindu months of Chaitra and Baisakh fall during this season. It is also the time for some important Hindu festivals, including Vasant Panchami, Ugadi, Gudi Padwa, Holi, Rama Navami, Vishu, Bihu, Baisakhi, Puthandu, and Hanuman Jayanti.
The equinox, which marks the beginning of spring in India and the rest of the northern hemisphere, and autumn in the southern hemisphere, occurs at the midpoint of Vasant. In Vedic astrology, the vernal equinox is called Vasant Vishuva or Vasant Sampat.
Grishma Ritu: Summer
Summer, or Grishma Ritu, is when the weather grows gradually hotter across most parts of India. In 2019, Grishma Ritu begins on April 20 and ends on June 21.
Grishma Ritu ends on the solstice, known in Vedic astrology as Dakshinayana. It marks the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere and is the longest day of the year in India. In the southern hemisphere, the solstice marks the start of winter and is the shortest day of the year.
Varsha Ritu: Monsoon
in Hindu Calendar the monsoon season or Varsha Ritu is the time of year when it rains heavily across much of India. In 2019, Varsha Ritu begins on June 21 and ends on August 23.
The solstice, called Dakshinayana, marks the beginning of Varsha Ritu and the official start of summer in India and the rest of the northern hemisphere. However, southern India is close to the equator, so “summertime” lasts much of the year.
Sharad Ritu: Autumn
Autumn is called Sharad Ritu, when the hot weather recedes gradually in most parts of India. In 2019, it begins on August 23 and end on October 23.
The two Hindu months of Ashwin and Kartik fall during this season. It is the festival time in India, with the most important Hindu festivals occurring, among them Navaratri, Vijayadashami, and Sharad Purnima.
The autumnal equinox, which marks the beginning of fall in the northern hemisphere and spring in the southern hemisphere, occurs at the midpoint of Sharad Ritu. On this date, the day and night last exactly the same amount of time. In Vedic astrology, the autumnal equinox is called Sharad Vishuva or Sharad Sampat.
Hemant Ritu: Prewinter
The time before winter in Hindu Calendar is called Hemant Ritu. It is perhaps the most pleasant time of the year across India, weather-wise. In 2019, the season begins on October 23 and ends on December 21.
The two Hindu months of Agrahayana and Pausha, or Agahan and Poos, fall during this season. It is time for some of the most important Hindu festivals, including Diwali, the festival of lights, Bhai Dooj, and a number of new year’s celebrations.
Hemant Ritu ends on the solstice, which marks the beginning of winter in India and the rest of the northern hemisphere. It is the shortest day of the year. In Vedic astrology, this solstice is known as Uttarayana.
Shishir Ritu: Winter
The coldest months of the year occur in winter, which is known as Shita Ritu or Shishir Ritu. In 2019, the season begins on December 21 and ends on February 18.
Shishir Ritu starts with the solstice, called Uttarayana in Vedic astrology. In the northern hemisphere, which includes India, the solstice signals the beginning of winter. In the southern hemisphere, it is the start of summer.
Source and credits: Learning religions
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